For all of you who love and cherish Music, in all its various manifestations, prepare your ears for a never-ending banquet. Voilà: 53 CDs released by Putumayo World Music are available for download (this must be one of the most precious torrents in the whole World Wide Web!): http://bit.ly/1ngRfhK (3.3 gb). Founded in 1993 by Dan Storper & Michael Kraus, Putumayo aims to introduce audiences all around the world to the musical production of myriads of different cultures. Travel the world on the wings of songs! Distributed in more than 80 countries, these compilations are widely recognised by their high artistic quality and the awesome diversity of musical genres. It’s “guaranteed to make you feel good”!
Learn more & buy Putumayo products: http://www.putumayo.com/
Download 53 CDs at Pirate Bay: http://bit.ly/1ngRfhK
One of my favorite Putumayo CDs, “Latin Jazz” (full lenght):
In 1937 Winston Churchill said of the Palestinians: ‘I do not agree that the dog in a manger has the final right to the manger even though he may have lain there for a very long time. I do not admit that right. I do not admit for instance that a great wrong has been done to the red Indians of America or the black people of Australia. I do not admit that a wrong has been done to these people by the fact that a stronger race, a higher grade race, a more worldly wise race to put it that way, has come in and taken their place’. That set the trend for the Israeli state’s attitude towards Palestinians. In 1969, Israeli Prime Minister Golda Meir said: ‘Palestinians do not exist’. Her successor, Prime Minister Levi Eshkol, said: ‘What are Palestinians? When I came here [to Palestine] there were 250,000 non-Jews, mainly Arabs and Bedouins. It was desert, more than underdeveloped. Nothing’. Prime Minister Menachem Begin called Palestinians ‘two-legged beasts’. Prime Minister Yitzhak Shamir called them ‘grasshoppers’ who could be crushed. This is the language of heads of state, not the words of ordinary people.
In 1947 the UN formally partitioned Palestine and allotted 55% of Palestine’s land to the zionists. Within a year they had captured 78%. On May 14, 1948, the state of Israel was declared. Minutes after the declaration, the US recognized Israel. The West Bank was annexed by Jordan. The Gaza strip came under Egyptian military control. Formally, Palestine ceased to exist except in the minds and hearts of the hundreds of thousands of Palestinian people who became refugees.
In the summer of 1967, Israel occupied the West Bank and the Gaza Strip. Settlers were offered state subsidies and development aid to move into the occupied territories. Almost every day more Palestinian families are forced off their lands and driven into refugee camps. Palestinians who continue to live in Israel do not have the same rights as Israelis and live as second-class citizens in their former homeland.
Over the decades there have been uprisings, wars, intifadas. Tens of thousands have lost their lives. Accords and treaties have been signed, ceasefires declared and violated. But the bloodshed doesn’t end. Palestine still remains illegally occupied. Its people live in inhuman conditions, in virtual Bantustans, where they are subjected to collective punishments, 24-hour curfews, where they are humiliated and brutalised on a daily basis. They never know when their homes will be demolished, when their children will be shot, when their precious trees will be cut, when their roads will be closed, when they will be allowed to walk down to the market to buy food and medicine. And when they will not. They live with no semblance of dignity. With not much hope in sight. They have no control over their lands, their security, their movement, their communication, their water supply.
So when accords are signed and words like ‘autonomy’ and even ‘statehood’ are bandied about, it’s always worth asking: What sort of autonomy? What sort of state? What sort of rights will its citizens have? Young Palestinians who cannot contain their anger turn themselves into human bombs and haunt Israel’s streets and public places, blowing themselves up, killing ordinary people, injecting terror into daily life, and eventually hardening both societies’ suspicion and mutual hatred of each other. Each bombing invites merciless reprisals and even more hardship on Palestinian people. But then suicide bombing is an act of individual despair, not a revolutionary tactic. Although Palestinian attacks strike terror into Israeli civilians, they provide the perfect cover for the Israeli government’s daily incursions into Palestinian territory, the perfect excuse for old-fashioned, 19th century colonialism, dressed up as a new-fashioned, 21st century ‘war’.
Israel’s staunchest political and military ally is and always has been the US government. The US government has blocked, along with Israel, almost every UN resolution that sought a peaceful, equitable solution to the conflict. It has supported almost every war that Israel has fought. When Israel attacks Palestine, it is American missiles that smash through Palestinian homes. And every year Israel receives several billion dollars from the US.
What lessons should we draw from this tragic conflict? Is it really impossible for Jewish people who suffered so cruelly themselves — more cruelly perhaps than any other people in history — to understand the vulnerability and the yearning of those whom they have displaced? Does extreme suffering always kindle cruelty? What hope does this leave the human race with? What will happen to the Palestinian people in the event of a victory? When a nation without a state eventually proclaims a state, what kind of state will it be? What horrors will be perpetrated under its flag? Is it a separate state that we should be fighting for, or the rights to a life of liberty and dignity for everyone regardless of their ethnicity or religion? – ARUNDHATI ROY
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To delve deeper into the roots of the matter, I share with Awestruck Wanderer’s readers three excellent documentaries. They have taught me a great deal about the history of the Middle East’s conflicts and still have a lot to say to us under the present tragic situation. They are: BBC’s The Birth of Israel; Ilan Ziv’s Six Days in June – The War That Redefined The Middle East; and B.Z. Goldberg’s Promises. I’ve managed to gather these films here – including YouTube or Vimeo full-lenght videos, official synopsis and other relevant information. If you find this documentaries as relevant as I do, please share the knowledge!
“On 14 May 1948 Prime Minister David Ben Gurion announced the establishment of the state of Israel in the portion of Palestine allocated by the UN as a Jewish state. For the Israelis, the events of 1948 were a triumph; for the Palestinians it was the beggining of the ‘naqba’ – the catastrophe which saw them driven from their homeland. Within 24 hours the armies of Egypt, Jordan and Syria attacked. What followed was the first of many bloody wars between Israel and the Arabs – a bitter struggle which has dominated the region for the past 60 years and continues to threaten global security. Jeremy Bowen travels to Israel and the neighbouring countries involved in the conflict to take a fresh look at the events leading to the foundation of the state of Israel. Using a combination of rarely seen archive footage, historical eyewitness accounts and interviews with the surviving political, diplomatic and military figures of the time from both sides of the divide, Jeremy uses the history of the period as a prism to reflect the current state of the Israeli / Palestinian conundrum. Interviews include Shimon Peres, David Den Gurion’s right hand man and now president of Israel, and Hassan Nusseibeh, Jordanian Ambassador to the UN, among others. Challenging existing myths – promulgated by both sides – about the founding of Israel, this is a fresh perspective on an ongoing conflict.”
BBC Production. 2009. 60 mins.
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“In June of 1967, a war pitted the Israelis against the Arabs and the US against the Soviet Union. It lasted only 6 days, but it changed the Middle East, and America’s policy towards the region, and the war’s results are embodied in every aspect of the current bloody Middle East conflict. This groundbreaking documentary provides a fresh perspective on the war, bringing to life its battlefields, politics, and the personal histories of the many lives it affected. Today, the regions remains trapped in a never-ending cycle of occupation, terrorism and reprisal, much of which is caused by the same animosity that triggered the war in the first place. Shot in location in Israel, Palestine, Egyps, Syria, Jordan, Moscow and Washingston, and using newly declassified archives, home movie footage and personal photographs, evocative recreations, and dozens of interviews with participants, this film offers unprecedented insight into the story of the Six Day War. With an extraordinary cast of characters – Israeli Prime Minister Levi Eshkol, Defense Minister Moshe Dayan, Egyptian President Gamal Abdel Nasser, Field Marshal Amer, and Lyndon B. Johnson, to name a few – Six Days in June examins how the war came about, how it was fought, and how it reshaped the regional political landscape… all in six days.”
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“B.Z. Goldberg, an American filmmaker who was raised in Jerusalem and is fluent in both Hebrew and Arabic, returned to the Middle East to help make this documentary, which chronicles his encounters with seven children between the ages of 11 and 13, some Israeli and some Palestinian, who discuss their political views, their thoughts about the ongoing violence in their homelands and the possibility of a lasting peace, and the impact the aggression has had upon them. Encompassing extremists and moderates on both sides of the fence, the seven youngsters are interviewed individually and then brought together, where their common interests become clear — as well as the fact that it’s quite possible they’ll never live together in peace. Co-directed by Goldberg with Justine Shapiro and Carlos Bolado, Promises won the Audience Award at the 2001 Rotterdam Film Festival.” – Amg All Movie Guide
A landmark of journalism and the art form of comics. Based on several months of research and an extended visit to the West Bank and Gaza Strip in the early 1990s, this is a major work of political and historical nonfiction. Prior to “Safe Area Gorazde: The War In Eastern Bosnia 1992-1995” — Joe Sacco’s breakthrough novel of graphic journalism — the acclaimed author was best known for “Palestine”, a two-volume graphic novel that won an American Book Award in 1996. In order to accomplish it, Joe Sacco conducted over 100 interviews with Palestinians and Jews. “Palestine” was the first major comics work of political and historical nonfiction by Sacco, whose name has since become synonymous with this graphic form of New Journalism. “Palestine” has been favorably compared to Art Spiegelman’s Pulitzer Prize-winning “Maus” for its ability to brilliantly navigate such socially and politically sensitive subject matter within the confines of the comic book medium. Sacco has often been called the first comic book journalist, and he is certainly the best. This edition of Palestine also features an introduction from renowned author, critic, and historian Edward Said (“Peace and Its Discontents” and “The Question of Palestine”), one of the world’s most respected authorities on the Middle Eastern conflict.
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You might also enjoy:
EDWARD W. SAID – The Question of Palestine
(Vintage, 1980, 265 pgs)
DOWNLOAD E-BOOK (via libgen.org)
Synopsis: “For almost three decades, internationally renowned Canadian artist Edward Burtynsky has been creating large scale photographs of landscapes transformed by industry: quarries, scrap heaps, factories, recycling yards, dams. Manufactured Landscapes follows Burtynsky to China as he travels the country capturing the evidence and effects of China’s massive industrial revolution. Rarely witnessed sites such as the Three Gorges Dam (50% larger than any other dam in the world), the interior of a factory which produces 20 million irons a year, and the breathtaking scale of Shanghai’s urban renewal are subjects for his lens and our motion picture camera. Shot in sumptuous super 16mm film, Manufactured Landscapes extends the narratives of Burtynsky’s photographs, meditating on human impact on the planet without trying to reach simplistic judgements or reductive resolutions. In the process, the film shifts our consciousness about the world and the way we live in it.” – National Film Board of Canada
PULSATING TO THE SAME BEAT
by Eduardo Carli de Moraes
“Music is the universal language of human emotion.”
THEODOR REIK (1888-1969),
The Haunting Melody – Psychoanalytic Experiences in Life and Music
Between June 26 and July 6, Montréal hosted the 35th edition of its world-famous International Jazz Festival. Every year, in the heart of the francophone metropolis of North America, this event attracts a huge audience of music-lovers. No less than 2 million visits are registered to its splendid outdoor site.
The 2014 Jazz Fest offered more than 300 free concerts, which took place in several different open-air stages at the magnificent Quartier Des Spectacles, beautifully adorned to receive this massive gathering of Music Worship. In addition to the wide range of free events, dozens of paid gigs happened in pubs, theaters and concert halls across the city, some of which had sold-out tickets months before the first musical note was played.
It was the dawn of the Canadian summer and the heatwave made sure there would be no shortage of sunlight and sweat during the 11 days of musical feast. During his spicy and enthusiastic concert, the Haitian singer Jean-Jean Roosevelt said jokingly that Montréal – a city where winters are quite harsh – had been promoted to the status of Tropical Island. People all around seem to be filling quite at ease: it was possible to chill out in the grass in front of certain stages, if your legs needed some repose; or else to join the jumpin’-and-cheerin’ crowds who were in partying-mood.
Alain Simard, who founded the F.I.J.M. (Festival International de Jazz de Montréal) 35 years ago, and acts nowadays as its president, considers:
“If it has become the largest cultural and tourism event in Québec, it is especially because it represents social interaction at its best, the very essence of the now-iconic sense of joy and celebration identified with Montréal and Montrealers, and the welcome they offer to visitors from everywhere. Everyone is invited and participates with an unparalleled openness. All distinctions – ethnic, linguistic, political, economic and generational – cease to exist. Music and human warmth are the common denominator! The Festival is an inclusive, cool little urban oasis, where we can gather by the thousands and relax peacefully in a joyous musical environment, where the reigning impulses are to discover, share and celebrate together.”
Québec’s Prime Minister, Philippe Couillard, also celebrates the festival’s scope: “For 35 years, the F.I.J.M. has attracted the greatest artists on the international scene. It brings together jazz legends and rising stars. Over the years, this rendez-vous has become the world’s largest jazz festival. Its success is a testamente to our values. We are an open, ambitious, passionate, and festive society, much to the delight of music lovers around the world.” (Mots des Dignitaires, p. 13) What may sound to some ears like an overstatement was actually endorsed in 2004 by the Guinness Book of Records, which considered the Montréal Jazz Festival the largest of its kind worldwide. The Downbeat magazine, in its 80th anniversary edition, in which it explores The 80 Coolest Things in Jazz Today, also ranks F.I.J.M. as one of Earth’s greatest jazz festivals.
Montréal, the most populous city of the Canadian province of Québec, with more than 1 million and 600 thousand inhabitants, experiences during the Jazz Fest an extraordinary human effervescence, driven by the impressive amount of temporary visitors who attend the event – including musicians, sound engineers , roadies, journalists, photographers, filmmakers, dancers, artists of various strains etc. Besides, of course, the crowd of music lovers, which constitutes a multi-ethnic and multi-linguistic audience that highlights the intense cosmopolitism that’s one of the main trends of Montréal.
Ever since its 1st edition in 1980, the festival has been harbouring concerts by major figures in world music: F.I.J.M’s history registers performances of “myths” such as Ray Charles, Miles Davis, Sarah Vaughan, Ella Fitzgerald, Astor Piazzolla, Dizzy Gillespie, Tom Jobim, James Brown, Dave Brubeck, Tony Bennett, Cab Callaway, Van Morrison, Bob Dylan, Stevie Wonder, among many others. In 2014, amongst the greatest attractions of the festival were the bluesman B. B. King, the soul diva Aretha Franklin, the pianist and singer Diana Krall, plus some artists linked to the world of rock’n’roll, but very much respected in the universe jazz – Elvis Costello, Beck Hansen and Ben Harper. This 35th edition also paid homage to the flamenco guitarist, recently deceased, Paco de Lucía (1947-2014), to whom the festival was dedicated.
The achievement of this mega-event is only possible because of public and private powers who join forces in order to make it happen with clockwork precision: Québec’s Ministries of Tourism, Transport, Culture & Communications, among others, work-in-sync with private partners like Rio Tinto Alcan, Bell, TD and Heineken. The Montréal Jazz Fest is a non-profit organization and the official publication states that “the activities are carried out with no intention of financial gain and all profits are re-injected in the operations of the festival and its free activities.” This latest edition was accomplished with a budget of 25.2 million Canadian dollars and was responsible for the creation of 1,500 jobs.
A study published in 2011 by SECOR gives us an idea of the broader economic impacts of the Festival on the sectors of housing, food and transportation – all of them go through one of their biggest annual booms during Jazz celebrations in Montréal: it is estimated that the expenditure of tourists and production teams, whose presence Montréal is wholly or partly justified by the festival’s occurrence, adds up to 96 million Canadian dollars. As for the origins of visitors, the statistics show that 30% come from the U.S., 25% from the province of Québec, 18% from other regions of Canada, 18% from Europe and 9% from other countries.
Despite being a festival devoted mainly to music, F.I.J.M. also makes room for other forms of artistic expression, including street-dance performances (have a taste of it on a video at the end of this post). The public also had access to a fine arts gallery, where rare paintings by Jimi Hendrix and Miles Davis were on display, side by side with numerous works of artists from Québec – for example the highly talented Yves Archambault, who has been, for the last 20 years, responsible for the illustrations of the Jazz Fest posters and flyers. Below, you can see some of the most impressive works by Archambault in recent years – check it out:
Montréal’s Jazz Fest has also an educational mission: it aims at enabling children and youngsters to discover and cherish the world of music at an early age. The idea is to provide the newcomers-to-life with some sparks that hopefully will start in them a passionate fire of musical devotion. Families with kids can be seen circulating quite at ease through F.I.J.M.’s welcoming spaces, and a key initiative in this regard is the Musical Playground For Children (Parc Musical Pour Les Enfants). It seeks to provide entertainment to children while at the same time planting in their soil the seeds of love for art. In one of the attractions of the park, the kids could jump, dance and roll over the keys of a giant piano. In another, they could slide down through a huge saxophone, whose “mouth” expelled not musical notes destined to sail in the wind but rather laughing kids with veins filled with adrenaline.
Despite its various delight for the ears, the Festival was also filled with eye-candy: giant and colourful flags representing pianos were gracefully swingin’ in the breeze; the building of the University of Québec à Montréal (UQÀM) served as a screen-of-stone for astonishing projections of photographs portraying great musicians in action; and all around the eyes could enjoy the gorgeous architecture of the Place Des Arts and its surroundings.
Another very interesting practise of the festival is its Carboneutrality, which means that Montréal Jazz Festival pledges to accomplish an event that has no deleterious effects on the environment because of increased emissions of carbon dioxide. Both F.I.J.M. and the Festival d’Été de Québec are committed to being “carboneutre”: all the pollution and dirt, resulting from the increased pace of transport, rising consumption of electricity and the largest waste production are counteracted by “green projects” supported by the festivals. I found this eco-friendliness to be truly laudable. In addition to the wide range of free cultural events provided to the general public – an excellent example that it’s possible to achieve both artistic quality and broad popular access – Québec’s summer music festivals play an important role of ecological awareness and sustainable practices. It teaches us that, when the music is over, the job’s far from done: time to start recycling and planting trees.
All things considered, this was by far one of the greatest experiences I’ve ever had in a music festival. It was profoundly rewarding to go through these several days of musical feast in Québec’s metropolis – which has already become one of my favorite places on Planet Earth. I have a heart full of “bravo!”s for Montréal’s excellent event – and I strongly wish I can come back in the future to enjoy a brand new banquet of melodies, rhythm and people in cheerful interactions.
I especially liked how, apart from being a Jazz festival, there’s not a drop of orthodoxy or narrow-mindedness in defining what artists fit the canons of what “jazz” means. Instead, Montréal delightfully wishes diversity to reign. No purism erects borders, prohibits styles or condemns trends: Montréal’s attitude, it seems to me, is one of receiving with wide-opened arms Music in all of its diverse manifestations. There was no musical apartheid going on, but rather musical expression was taking place in a very broad ethno-cultural spectrum: I could experience the spicy African rhythms of Mokoomba, from Zimbabwe; the Australian big-band Melbourne Ska Orchestra; the Cuban group Conjunto Chappottin y Sus Estrellas, experts in salsa, mambo and rumba; the futuristic and orchestrated hip-hop ensemble Deltron 3030; the heavy blues of high-voltage of Miss Layla Zoe; the soulful rock’n’roll from L.A.’s Vintage Trouble; among many other examples.
Theodor Reik wrote in his fascinating book The Haunting Melody that “music is the universal language of human emotion.” This idea never made as much sense to me as it does now. In Montréal, during this unforgetable week in which I was a Latin American flannêur in one of the cities I loved the most to meet, I felt like some sort of human-fish swimming in a sea of people of extraordinary diversity. Humans from differents creeds, colors, roots, backgrounds, affiliations, languages, clothes, tattoos, idiosyncrasies, were coming together in a joyous celebration. It dawned on me with unprecedented force how much music has a potential of transcending apartheids and making people pulsate in the same beat. It filled me with hope that another world is possible, in which differences are not a reason to sever relations but much more an invitation to join together and co-evolve; in which all apartheids fall down and individuals salute each other with “namastê”; in which art is respected, cherished and collectively celebrated as a practical force that enables la joie de vivre; in which music’s power of transgressing borders and languages proves that it is quite possible to build precious spaces in which John Lennon’s dream – “The Brotherhood of Man” – is already alive and kicking. I still can hear its heartbeat.
You might also enjoy taking at look at my
Album of photographs.
Cheers, fellow earthlings!
“Without music life would be a mistake.” (Nietzsche)
From Jon Savage’s Teenage – The Creation of Youth Culture:
Rimbaud was the poet of France’s darkest days. During the winter of 1870-71, Arthur Rimbaud lived on the front line of the Franco-Prussian War, in the small town of Charleville near the Belgian border. On New Year’s Eve, his family sheltered in their house while Prussian shells pounded the nearby medieval fortress of Mézières, just across the river Meuse from Charleville. At the age of 16, Rimbaud was surrounded by the detritus of war: maimed soldiers, smashed cities, disfigured landscapes.
He reveled in the destruction. “I saw a sea of flames and smoke rise to heaven”, he later wrote, “and left and right all wealth exploded like a billion thunderbolts.” As the second son of a French army colonel who had deserted the family ten years earlier, Rimbaud had more than enough reason not to love the military. When his older brother Frederick enthusiastically enlisted, he found it “contemptible”; after France had been defeated, he went around Charleville telling everyone how lucky his country was. It was as though the downfall of France had set him free.
At 16, Rimbaud was the archetypal provincial youth who had long outgrown his family and his hometown. He couldn’t wait to get away. The chaos created by the Franco-Prussian War externalized his internal fury and gave him an opportunity to test himself. That winter, he ran away from home and, somewhere amid the wasteland of the Prussian front line, he experienced a revelation: “Along the open road on winter nights, homeless, cold, and hungry, one voice gripped my frozen heart: ‘Weakness or strenght, you exist, that is strenght.’ “
Two months later, Rimbaud saw his fantasies become real, as the capital city’s poor rose up with thousands of students and workers in the short-lived Paris Commune. For a brief period in April and May 1871, anarchists were in charge of the capital, and young poets ran the police force. Rimbaud was one of only thousands of young vagabonds who flocked to revolutionary Paris like moths to a flame: so many that the Commune formed two battalions from their numbers, the “Pupilles de la Commune” and the “Enfants Perdus”.
Although the Commune was smashed within weeks of Rimbaud’s visit, the 16-year-old took away the sense of liberation that he had experienced and determined to apply it to his own work and life. The two would become indivisible. On May 13, 1871, he wrote his friend Paul Demeny, “The problem is to attain the unknown by disorganizing all the senses. The suffering is immense, but you have to be strong, and to have been born a poet.”
For Rimbaud, poetry was a mystical calling. He followed the visionary dark line that began with the Romantics and passed through Edgar Allan Poe and Charles Baudelaire to its conclusion. After 1871, his poems were full off revolutionary turmoil, antibourgeois invective, pagan mysticism, and wild prophecies all melded together into a consistent cosmology. Above all, his visions were apocalyptic: “This is the time of the sweat bath, of oceans boiling over, of underground explosions, of the planet whirled away, of exterminations sure to follow.”
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You might also enjoy
A film by Matt Wolf
Based on the book by Jon Savage
“Teenage: The Creation of Youth Culture (1875-1945)”
Download: http://bit.ly/U775zv (torrent)
“Teenagers didn’t always exist. They had to be invented. As the cultural landscape around the world was thrown into turmoil during the industrial revolution, and with a chasm erupting between adults and youth, the concept of a new generation took shape. Whether in America, England, or Germany, whether party-crazed Flappers or hip Swing Kids, zealous Nazi Youth or frenzied Sub-Debs, it didn’t matter – this was a new idea of how people come of age. They were all “Teenagers.”
A hypnotic rumination on the genesis of youth culture from the end of the 19th century to the first half of the 20th, TEENAGE is a living collage of rare archival material, filmed portraits, and diary entries read by Jena Malone, Ben Whishaw, and others. Set to a a shimmering contemporary score by Bradford Cox (Deerhunter / Atlas Sound), TEENAGE is a mesmerizing trip into the past and a riveting look at the very idea of “coming-of-age.”
Um blog dedicado à musica africana: uma viagem pelo continente africano, sua diversidade e sua riqueza (estamos procurando uma nova radio)
Tudo está no lugar certo
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Quando eu amanheço, é sob o céu de Van Gogh que me pinto flor. Quando entardeço sou nuvem (Toda azul). Pincelada por dentro, eu ardo de um amarelo-ouro: Há sempre uma cor pra cada pedaço de nós.
Dias 19 e 20/10/11 Vote em quem Luta: Vote Resistência!
poesia di dendê
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por uma educação crítica, igualitária e libertadora
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futebol - jornalismo - rock - política - cinema - livros - ideias
Coletivo Ecossocialista e Libertário
blog of the post capitalist transition.. Read or download the novel here + latest relevant posts
Núcleo de Pesquisa e Desconstrução de Gêneros
Bares, cafés e clubes, a partir do século XIX, não eram apenas um ambiente para a happy hour. Eles foram o cenário onde questões políticas, filosóficas, organização de movimentos artísticos revolucionários se disseminavam dos intelectuais para o cidadão que não tinha acesso à Academia e vice-versa.